Archaeological Evidence Shows Early Homo sapiens in Europe Faced Subarctic Climates

11 mins read

New insights into the climatic backdrop for an early wave of dispersal of our species into Europe during the last glacial period.

The process how our species dispersed into new environments at that time represents an important evolutionary turning point that ultimately led to Homo sapiens populating all continents and a large diversity of climate zones and environments. The mechanisms that facilitated initial waves of expansion remain debated, but a majority of models based on the correlation of archaeological sites with spatially distant climatic archives has so far indicated that human groups relied on warmer climatic conditions to spread into new, more northern, environments.

High Crowned Horse Teeth

High crowned horse teeth – such as the one shown here, recovered from the lower layers of the Bacho Kiro Cave sequence – were analysed for the oxygen isotopic composition of tooth enamel to reconstruct seasonal temperatures during the animal’s life. Credit: MPI-EVA/ Sarah Pederzani

Using evidence directly from the archaeological layers of Bacho Kiro Cave the Max Planck team was now able to show that humans have been enduring very cold climatic conditions, similar to the ones typical for present-day northern Scandinavia, for several thousand years. “Our evidence shows that these human groups were more flexible with regard to the environments they used and more adaptable to different climatic conditions than previously thought,” says lead author Sarah Pederzani, a researcher at the Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology and the University of Aberdeen. Jean-Jacques Hublin, director of the Department of Human Evolution at the Max Planck Institute, adds: “Using these new insights, new models of the spread of our species across Eurasia will now need to be constructed, taking into account their higher degree of climatic flexibility.”

Archaeological materials from Bacho Kiro Cave in Bulgaria

By directly using archaeological materials, such as the remains of herbivores butchered by humans, to generate climatic data the palaeoclimate research team – led by Pederzani and Kate Britton, also a researcher at Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology and the University of Aberdeen – was able to establish a very robust record of local climatic conditions that specifically relates to the times when humans were inhabiting Bacho Kiro Cave.

“This technique enables a more confident assignment of local climatic context compared to the more commonly used chronological correlation between archaeological data and climatic archives from different localities that formed the basis of much of the existing research on human climatic adaptability – it really gives us insight into what life was like ‘on the ground,’” says Britton. “However, due to the time-consuming nature of the analysis and the reliance on the availability of particular animal remains, oxygen isotope studies or other ways of generating climatic data directly from archaeological sites remain scarce for the time period when Homo sapiens first spread across Eurasia,” adds Pederzani. Indeed, this Max Planck study is the first study conducted in the context of the Initial Upper Palaeolithic and could therefore yield such surprising results.

Tooth Enamel Samples Wet Chemistry Lab

Tooth enamel samples from animal teeth are processed in a wet chemistry lab to isolate oxygen-bearing compounds for stable isotope analysis that yields climatic information. Here the lead author of this study can be seen adding acid to samples to bring them into solution. As this process involves the use of hazardous substances, lab scientists are wearing protective gear like gloves, aprons, and face shields. Credit: MPI-EVA

Highly resolved record of past temperatures spanning more than 7,000 years

Pederzani spent one-year conducting lab work from drilling series of small samples from the animal teeth through wet chemistry preparation and stable isotope ratio mass spectrometry to obtain all the necessary data. “Through this time-intensive analysis that included a total of 179 samples, it was possible to obtain a very highly resolved record of past temperatures, including summer, winter, and mean annual temperature estimates for human occupations spanning more than 7,000 years,” says Pederzani.

Renewed excavations at Bacho Kiro Cave conducted by an international team led by Max Planck researchers Jean-Jacques Hublin, Tsenka Tsanova and Shannon McPherron, and Nikolay Sirakov of the National Institute of Archaeology with Museum at the Bulgarian Academy of Sciences in Sofia, Bulgaria, started in 2015 and have yielded a rich archaeological record of human activity at the cave including the remnants of occupations that represent the earliest known occurrence of Upper Palaeolithic Homo sapiens in Europe. Deposits in the lower portion of the site contained a large number of animal bones, stone tools, pendants, and even human fossils and formed the basis of the climatic study to investigate the environmental conditions that humans experienced when they first spread into Southeast Europe from the Levant.

Reference: “Subarctic climate for the earliest Homo sapiens in Europe” 22 September 2021, Science Advances.
DOI: 10.1126/sciadv.abi4642

https://tautaruna.nra.lv/forums/tema/46088-vipbox-tv-panthers-vs-texans-live-stream-reddit-on-23-septeber-2021/

https://vocus.cc/article/614cf57bfd897800018dc55e

https://vocus.cc/article/614cf5c6fd897800018dc6b0

https://blog.goo.ne.jp/chungxang/e/0f45b5c9328397ebaacf11467bfe49d8

https://blog.goo.ne.jp/chungxang/e/10d49dfaa985d8dca7d00796e723097b

https://kukooo.com/jobs/human-resource/scientists-build-embryo-like-structures-from_i71428

https://kukooo.com/jobs/seaman-ship/the-future-of-nasa-video_i71429

https://kukooo.com/real-estate/land/researchers-translate-insect-defense-chemicals_i71431 

https://learninglab.si.edu/collections/23-9-houston-texans-vs-carolina-panthers-live-stream-reddit-free/rEPnS8TJCyAbWLOm
https://beerconnoisseur.com/events/houston-texans-vs-carolina-panthers-live-stream-reddit-free-23-september-thursday
https://beerconnoisseur.com/events/tnfcarolina-panthers-vs-houston-texans-live-stream-reddit-free23-sept-2021
https://beerconnoisseur.com/events/23-9-panthers-vs-texans-nfl-live-stream-reddit-how-watch-week-3
https://beerconnoisseur.com/events/texans-vs-panthers-2021-live-stream-reddit-how-watch-nfl-game-online-23-september-thursday
https://beerconnoisseur.com/events/nfl-thursday-night-football-2021-live-stream-reddit-crack-stream-buffstream-bilasports-cr7

https://www.deviantart.com/textv/journal/NFL-Thursday-Night-Football-Live-Stream-Reddit-21-892774799
https://www.deviantart.com/textv/journal/Houston-Texans-NFL-Game-Live-stream-reddit-2021-892774936
https://www.deviantart.com/textv/journal/Texans-vs-Carolina-Panthers-Live-stream-Reddit-23-892770749
https://www.deviantart.com/textv/journal/C-Panthers-vs-Houston-Texans-Live-Stream-reddit-f-892770830
https://www.deviantart.com/textv/journal/Bilasport-Texans-vs-Panthers-Live-Stream-Reddit-892770892
https://www.deviantart.com/textv/journal/Texans-vs-Panthers-NFL-Live-stream-reddit-free-202-892770949
https://www.deviantart.com/textv/journal/Texans-vs-Panthers-Football-Live-stream-reddit-892771037
https://www.deviantart.com/textv/journal/Panthers-vs-Texans-Live-stream-reddit-On-23-sep-892771115
https://www.deviantart.com/textv/journal/TNF-Panthers-vs-Texans-Live-stream-reddit-23-9-892771192
https://www.deviantart.com/textv/journal/23-9-Panthers-vs-Texans-Live-stream-reddit-892771267
https://www.deviantart.com/textv/journal/NFL-Live-Streams-Reddit-Reddit-NFL-streams-FREE-892771425
https://www.deviantart.com/textv/journal/NFL-Bilasport-Crackstream-Buffstream-live-Reddit-892771497
———-
https://indiamaart.com/index.php/advert/streams-r-e-d-d-i-t-panthers-v-texans-live-on-nfl-23-sep-2021/
https://indiamaart.com/index.php/advert/tnf-w3-carolina-panthers-vs-houston-texans-livestream-how-to-watch-thursday-night-football-in-nfl-week-3/
https://indiamaart.com/index.php/advert/sportstreamtexans-vs-panthers-livestream-reddit-free-thursdays-night-nfl-game23-09-2021/
https://indiamaart.com/index.php/advert/bilasport-panthers-vs-texans-free-livestream-reddit-on-24-september/
https://indiamaart.com/index.php/advert/nfl-thursday-night-football-buffstream-live-stream-free-reddit-online/
—-
https://contacte.ca/advert/streams-r-e-d-d-i-t-carolina-v-houston-live-on-nfl-23-sep-2021/
https://contacte.ca/advert/how-to-watch-tnf-houston-texans-vs-carolina-panthers-2021-live-stream-tv-channel-start-time/
https://contacte.ca/advert/rojadirecta-texans-vs-panthers-livestream-reddit-free-thursdays-night-nfl-game23-09-2021/
https://contacte.ca/advert/crickfree-panthers-vs-texans-free-livestream-reddit-on-24-september/
https://contacte.ca/advert/tnf-on-nfl-thursday-night-football-live-stream-free-reddit-online/
—-
http://www.expo15online.com/advert/official-live-carolina-panthers-vs-houston-texans-live-streamsreddit/
http://www.expo15online.com/advert/reddit-nfl-streams-houston-texans-vs-carolina-panthers-live-on-23-september-2021/
http://www.expo15online.com/advert/vipleague-texans-vs-panthers-livestream-reddit-free-thursdays-night-nfl-game23-09-2021/
http://www.expo15online.com/advert/crichd-panthers-vs-texans-free-livestream-reddit-on-24-september/
http://www.expo15online.com/advert/thursday-night-football-livestream-free-reddit-online-23-september/

https://www.nobodigonto.com/advert/live-official-livestream-2021texans-vs-panthers-live-reddit-2/
https://www.nobodigonto.com/advert/carolina-panthers-vs-houston-texans-live-how-to-watch-thursday-night-football-in-nfl-week-3-time-tv-live-stream/
https://www.nobodigonto.com/advert/fromhots-texans-vs-panthers-livestream-reddit-free-thursdays-night-nfl-game23-09-2021/
https://www.nobodigonto.com/advert/sportsurge-panthers-vs-texans-free-livestream-reddit-on-24-september/
https://www.nobodigonto.com/advert/bilasport-thursday-night-football-live-stream-free-reddit-online-2021/
—-
http://www.fatehgarhsahibdba.com/advert/officialpanthers-vs-texans-live-streamsreddit/
http://www.fatehgarhsahibdba.com/advert/official-livestream-2021texans-vs-panthers-live-streams-reddit/
http://www.fatehgarhsahibdba.com/advert/livetvtexans-vs-panthers-livestream-reddit-free-thursdays-night-nfl-game23-09-2021/
http://www.fatehgarhsahibdba.com/advert/vipboxtv-panthers-vs-texans-free-livestream-reddit-on-24-september/
http://www.fatehgarhsahibdba.com/advert/2021-thursday-night-football-live-stream-free-reddit-online/
—-
https://jewishflorida.news/advert/streamofficial-panthers-vs-texans-live-streamreddit/
https://jewishflorida.news/advert/nflbite-texans-vs-panthers-nfl-game-live-stream-reddit-online-free-on-23-september-2021/
https://jewishflorida.news/advert/stream2watch-texans-vs-panthers-livestream-reddit-free-thursdays-night-nfl-game23-09-2021/
https://jewishflorida.news/advert/crackstreams-panthers-vs-texans-free-livestream-reddit-on-24-september/
https://jewishflorida.news/advert/thursday-night-football-2021-live-stream-free-reddit-online/
—-
https://gulfcoastmotorsports.com/advert/carolina-panthers-vs-houston-texans-live-streams-reddit/
https://gulfcoastmotorsports.com/advert/tnfstreamstexans-vs-panthers-live-stream-reddit-online-free-on-23-september-2021/
https://gulfcoastmotorsports.com/advert/viprow-texans-vs-panthers-livestream-reddit-free-thursdays-night-nfl-game23-09-2021/
https://gulfcoastmotorsports.com/advert/mamahd-panthers-vs-texans-free-livestream-reddit-on-24-september/
https://gulfcoastmotorsports.com/advert/nfl-thursday-night-football-live-stream-free-reddit-online/

https://ramalanmandram.com/advert/game-nfl-panthers-vs-texans-live-streamreddit/
https://ramalanmandram.com/advert/watch-texans-vs-panthers-live-stream-online-free-on-23-september-2021/
https://ramalanmandram.com/advert/footybite-texans-vs-panthers-livestream-reddit-free-thursdays-night-nfl-game23-09-2021/
https://ramalanmandram.com/advert/bosscast-panthers-vs-texans-free-livestream-reddit-on-24-september/
https://ramalanmandram.com/advert/thursday-night-football-live-stream-free-reddit-online/
——–
https://www.dmcityview.com/event/nfl-week-3-live-stream-reddit-on-23-september-2021/
https://www.dmcityview.com/event/nflbite-houston-texans-vs-carolina-panthers-live-stream-reddit-free-on-24-sept/
https://www.dmcityview.com/event/viprow-vipboxtv-texans-vs-panthers-livestream-reddit-tv-info/
https://www.dmcityview.com/event/tnf-panthers-vs-texans-bilasport-livestream-reddit-free-on-24-sept-2021/

https://pastebin.com/si2KyZau

https://ideone.com/QXy9G9

https://paiza.io/projects/3G96EGFSItMQoOaKhk_mEg?language=php

https://www.bankier.pl/forum/temat_vipbox-tv-panthers-vs-texans-live-stream-reddit-on-23-septeber-2021,49729951.html

http://paste.jp/4a2bbb23/

http://cpp.sh/4t5gm

https://caribbeanfever.com/photo/albums/vipbox-tv-panthers-vs-texans-live-stream-reddit-on-23-septeber

https://www.onfeetnation.com/photo/albums/vipbox-tv-panthers-vs-texans-live-stream-reddit-on-23-septeber

http://zacriley.ning.com/photo/albums/vipbox-tv-panthers-vs-texans-live-stream-reddit-on-23-septeber

Leave a Reply

Your email address will not be published.

Previous Story

Bat Guts Become Less Healthy From Diet of “Fast Food” From Banana Plantations

Next Story

Looming Extinction Crisis: If Endangered Primates Disappear, So Will Their Parasites. That’s Actually a Problem